This article was originally published here Generational Garbage Collection in Firefox
So what is it? What does it do?
Without GGC, you will have high overhead for garbage collection (from here on, just “GC”). Each call to
add() creates a new
If your script does not keep very many total objects live, this is totally fine. Sure, you’ll be creating tons of garbage and collecting it constantly, but the scan of the live objects will be fast (since not much is live). However, if your script does create a large number of objects and keep them alive, then the full GC scans will be slow, and the performance of your script will be largely determined by the rate at which it produces temporary objects — even when the older objects aren’t changing, and you’re just re-scanning them over and over again to discover what you already knew. (“Are you dead?” “No.” “Are you dead?” “No.” “Are you dead?”…)
Generational collector, Nursery & Tenured
With a generational collector, the penalty for temporary objects is much lower. Most objects will be allocated into a separate memory region called the Nursery. When the Nursery fills up, only the Nursery will be scanned for live objects. The majority of the short-lived temporary objects will be dead, so this scan will be fast. The survivors will be promoted to the Tenured region.
The Tenured heap will also accumulate garbage, but usually at a far lower rate than the Nursery. It will take much longer to fill up. Eventually, we will still need to do a full GC, but under typical allocation patterns these should be much less common than Nursery GCs. To distinguish the two cases, we refer to Nursery collections as minor GCs and full heap scans as major GCs. Thus, with a generational collector, we split our GCs into two types: mostly fast minor GCs, and fewer slower major GCs.
While it might seem like we should have always been doing this, it turns out to require quite a bit of infrastructure that we previously did not have, and it also incurs some overhead during normal operation. Consider the question of how to figure out whether some Nursery object is live. It might be pointed to by a live Tenured object — for example, if you create an object and store it into a property of a live Tenured object.
How do you know which Nursery objects are being kept alive by Tenured objects? One alternative would be to scan the entire Tenured heap to find pointers into the Nursery, but this would defeat the whole point of GGC. So we need a way of answering the question more cheaply.
Note that these Tenured ⇒ Nursery edges in the heap graph won’t last very long, because the next minor GC will promote all survivors in the Nursery to the Tenured heap. So we only care about the Tenured objects that have been modified since the last minor (or major) GC. That won’t be a huge number of objects, so we make the code that writes into Tenured objects check whether it is writing any Nursery pointers, and if so, record the cross-generational edges in a store buffer.
In technical terms, this is known as a write barrier. Then, at minor GC time, we walk through the store buffer and mark every target Nursery object as being live. (We actually use the source of the edge at the same time, since we relocate the Nursery object into the Tenured area while marking it live, and thus the Tenured pointer into the Nursery needs to be updated.)
With a store buffer, the time for a minor GC is dependent on the number of newly-created edges from the Tenured area to the Nursery, not just the number of live objects in the Nursery. Also, keeping track of the store buffer records (or even just the checks to see whether a store buffer record needs to be created) does slow down normal heap access a little, so some code patterns may actually run slower with GGC.
On the flip side, GGC can speed up object allocation. The pre-GGC heap needs to be fully general. It must track in-use and free areas and avoid fragmentation. The GC needs to be able to iterate over everything in the heap to find live objects. Allocating an object in a general heap like this is surprisingly complex. (GGC’s Tenured heap has pretty much the same set of constraints, and in fact reuses the pre-GGC heap implementation.)
The Nursery, on the other hand, just grows until it is full. You never need to delete anything, at least until you free up the whole Nursery during a minor GC, so there is no need to track free regions. Consequently, the Nursery is perfect for bump allocation: to allocate N bytes you just check whether there is space available, then increment the current end-of-heap pointer by N bytes and return the previous pointer.
There are even tricks to optimize away the “space available” check in many cases. As a result, objects with a short lifespan never go through the slower Tenured heap allocation code at all.
I wrote a simple benchmark to demonstrate the various possible gains of GGC. The benchmark is sort of a “vector Fibonacci” calculation, where it computes a Fibonacci sequence for both the x and y components of a two dimensional vector. The script allocates a temporary object on every iteration. It first times the loop with the (Tenured) heap nearly empty, then it constructs a large object graph, intended to be placed into the Tenured portion of the heap, and times the loop again.
On my laptop, the benchmark shows huge wins from GGC. The average time for an iteration through the loop drops from 15 nanoseconds (ns) to 6ns with an empty heap, demonstrating the faster Nursery allocation. It also shows the independence from the Tenured heap size: without GGC, populating the long-lived heap slows down the mean time from 15ns to 27ns. With GGC, the speed stays flat at 6ns per iteration; the Tenured heap simply doesn’t matter.
Note that this benchmark is intended to highlight the improvements possible with GGC. The actual benefit depends heavily on the details of a given script. In some scripts, the time to initialize an object is significant and may exceed the time required to allocate the memory. A higher percentage of Nursery objects may get tenured. When running inside the browser, we force enough major GCs (eg, after a redraw) that the benefits of GGC are less noticeable.
Also, the description above implies that we will pause long enough to collect the entire heap, which is not the case — our incremental garbage collector dramatically reduces pause times on many Web workloads already. (The incremental and generational collectors complement each other — each attacks a different part of the problem.)
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